Some U.S. industries have expressed disappointment at Tuesday's decision.
China's exports soared in July, showing little impact from U.S. tariffs, as Washington finalises more duties on Chinese imports.
In a statement, the Chinese Commerce Ministry charged that the United States "once again put domestic law above global law by imposing "very unreasonable" new tariffs on Chinese goods".
"[The] trade data don't show any significant impact from the first round of United States tariffs", Julian Evans-Pritchard, senior China economist at Capital Economics, said in a note to investors. The new list covers products ranging from motorcycles to steam turbines and railway cars.
China's 25 percent tariffs will apply to US products such as coal, gasoline, vehicles, motorcycles and medical equipment.
Earlier in July, China's State Council released guidelines on expanding imports, promising tariff cuts, clean-ups of unreasonable price mark-ups, and better intellectual property rights protection.
The trade representative said the tariffs were a response to an investigation, released this year, which found China's policies on technology transfer, intellectual property and innovation were unreasonable and discriminatory, and placed an unfair burden United States commerce.
President Trump had repeatedly expressed discontent over the U.S. trade deficit with China, accusing the country of unfair trade practices, intellectual property theft, currency manipulation, and of providing state aid to Chinese firms. President Donald Trump has suggested he may tax effectively all imports of Chinese goods, which reached more than $500 billion a year ago.
The duties are part of a broader round of USA tariffs on $50bn worth of goods announced in March.
The world's two biggest economies are locked in a trade dispute.
China's imports rose 27.3 percent year-on-year in July, in a sign domestic demand remains solid, but the worry is that the escalating Sino-U.S. trade war, rising corporate bankruptcies, and a steep decline in the yuan could put a significant dent on the economy.
Economists say China appears to be taking a more hands-off approach to the yuan, which marked its worst 4-month fall on record between April and July and has provided some reprieve for exporters in the face of the rising trade tensions.